Saturday, December 8, 2007

ECOMP 7100- Fundamentals of Computer Structures

Well, here I am again, sitting in a new class, about to explore the technical aspects of a computer!! Of all the classes I will probably take, this one will mean the most to me because this is the area I know least about. The contents of a computer system and its maintenance has always been a big mystery to me! So far, we have learned about computer components, differences in computers, how interfacing is done and simple repair and troubleshooting.

Tuesday, October 23, 2007

ECOMP 5106 Final Reflections

Final Reflections Paper
Lesley University Cohort
Nancy Story
ECOMP 5106

This course is described as an exploration of integrating technology into the academic curriculum. Yet for me, it has opened up a new realm of possibilities for learning and teaching. In fact, in many ways, I was using technology in my classroom as a separate entity from my curriculum units. After taking this course, my eyes are now wide open to the extensive variety of computer and technology tools which can enhance and extend all areas of my curriculum. I was also unaware of the multitude of curriculum tools the internet offers which can enhance learning opportunities for myself and my students.
The strategy theory, “Backward Design”, is certainly not a new notion for me but after thoroughly investigating this concept, I realize that its purpose goes far deeper than just being, “beginning with the end in mind”. I understand that the fundamental ideas of backward design are centered upon value and purposes of learning. It facilitates students to work collaboratively with peers, attain personal success and encourage a love for learning that will extend for a lifetime.
Backward Design is now an essential element when I begin to create my curriculum units.
During weekend one, I was confused as to where many of the assignments were leading us. I was not sure how they were all going to fit together. One of the more favorable assignments for me was designing a curriculum web on the website. I had no idea there were internet sites dedicated to creating learning maps. Although I ended up having to redesign my map several times, the experience was valuable and helped me to begin making sense of the assignments thus far.
The word chain assignment was another favorite. The website www.visualthesaurus, is a great place for students to explore and extend their knowledge of vocabulary and gain a better understanding of the English language. It also offers exposure to many other languages, and interactive dictionaries.
At first glance, midterm assignments appeared somewhat problematic. I felt limited in my ability to create a technology plan designed for students with intellectual disabilities. After looking directly at what I was currently doing within my classroom, it dawned on me that I was already implementing this assignment within my curriculum unit!
My least favorable assignment was that of technology brochure making. I simply could not get it right and before I knew it, time was up. I was, however, very impressed by the brochures created by my techno-savvy classmates!
By weekend two, I was able to pull everything together and refine it. I explored the online chapters from “Teaching for Understanding Guide” by Tina Blythe. Blythe explains the teaching for understanding concept splendidly. She reminds me that teachers in the classroom still instruct in chunks of knowledge in which much of the information is meaningless because students are not allowed the time to explore and apply this knowledge to their own lives. An example would be attempting to teach a student about the wonders of the ocean when the child has never seen or been to the ocean.
Bloom’s Taxonomy was also a challenge to me. It divides the way students learn into hierarchy domains, and I had trouble moving past the application domain into higher order domains because most of my students have significant developmental disabilities. I reread all the information regarding Bloom’s concepts and decided to focus on the main gist of these higher order questions: bring forth independent thinking, use collaborative brainstorming, foster imagination and utilize personal choices. This helped me tremendously in writing my questions.
Overall, the technology tools I discovered during this course were all new to me. Each one opened a new door into the world of technology. By combining the performance standards and the NET standards into a clearer framework, I am now better able to design my own curriculum units more effectively. It has also allowed me to feel more connected to the world of general education.

Sunday, October 14, 2007


Nancy Story
ECOMP 5106
Lesley University
September- October 2007

Technology Autobiography. 2
Thoughts on Technology Integration. 2
Identifying Enduring Understandings. 3
Generative Topic Statement 4
Creating Essential Questions. 4
Unit Goals. 4
Learning Targets. 4
Technology Curriculum Plan. 6
Curriculum Unit 9
Unit Activities and Performances. 11
Assessment 1. 13
Assessment 2. 14
Assessment 3. 15
Assessment 4. 16

Technology Autobiography

My first real interest in technology started around 1996 when I taught at an alternative school in which every classroom was fully integrated with technology. I was fascinated at how every grade, behavior plan, lesson plan and staff interaction could be accessed via the computer. The students could track their own progress both behaviorally and academically. Their parents had direct access to all this information as well.
Being new to technology, I had to learn rapidly in order to keep up.
Remarkably, I found it was the students who taught me most of what I needed to learn that year!
When I returned to regular public schools, I began teaching special education at the elementary level. With this new assignment, there came even more incredible technology. This assistive technology opened an incredible new door for me. With the tireless help of my lead teacher, I began learning the assistive technology needs of my students. I explored the world of touch screens, writing with symbols, board maker, Intell keys and discrete trial training programs. These tools became a concrete foundation in my classroom. At present, I now incorporate a multisensory approach in teaching. I am capable of providing adaptive curriculum to best fit the individual needs of each student.
Thoughts on Technology Integration

1. Yes, I find it extremely important to utilize technology as much as possible. It is imperative to have knowledge regarding assistive technology available for students with special needs. I facilitate this technology based on the unique needs of my students. Also, by using a multisensory approach, I find students to be better motivated by the use of technology. Additionally, as part of my curriculum I am required to use assistive technology as it applies to the individual learning needs to each student.
2. Yes, The United States is somewhat behind as compared with other countries. This thought is based on my understanding of other countries’ educational ideals and standards. One good example would be Japan. There appears to be a better since of loyalty to both family and country. These values create a higher respect for education and work. America lacks motivation at home and work which prevents a general lack of respect to achieve to a full potential. My belief that America is behind in many areas and that is why Japan has many products in the technology and automotive industry which are preferred over American products.
3. The one item I would change at my school is the use to technology in general within the classrooms. I would make it mandatory for all teachers to integrate technology into their lessons on a daily basis. At one point, the county school system I am in considered and approved laptops for every student. Although it fell through, it was a fantastic idea and I hope it can be revisited in the future.
4. If every child had a laptop, it would change the course of quality in education, and incorporate a much needed connection between school and home. Additionally, it would create a since of cohesiveness and encourage higher demands on our culture and society. Within this power of technology, the weight of educational performance standards would become the responsibility of every American.
Identifying Enduring Understandings

I have a very hard time giving myself credit for knowing something really well.
I believe I am the type of person who soaks up a lot of information on a multitude of subjects, but I am not an expert in any field. I have a theory that there are no experts on any specific subject because to be an expert would mean perfection. There are no perfect people in this world, therefore, perfection cannot exist.
I do, however, seem to know a great deal about the area of Autism Spectrum Disorder. I developed this knowledge through hands on experience and a lot of training time.
My understanding and application of this knowledge came by exploring, experimenting and a lot of finding out what doesn’t work! The real reason I became good at what I do is due to passion and empathy for families and children living with Autism. I have a dedication in finding what will help and a belief that every child counts and has the incredible capacity to learn. It is also my belief that when something flows easily from me, I know it well. Also, if I can obtain measurable success and see positive changes as a result, then I know that subject pretty well. The curriculum I develop for my Autistic students is a reflection of my understanding.
Every Autistic child learns and develops differently therefore, my curriculum must be multisensory and often at a multitask level. Sensory integration is a key component in this development. Assistive technology and augmentative communication are also integral parts in any Autistic curriculum. Environment and personal comfort are considerations which my also influence the connections from knowing to understanding.
As I journey further through my passions for Autistic populations, my understanding continues to grow at a deeper level. It is gratifying to have others come to me for advice and guidance within this area!
Generative Topic Statement

Pictures can talk to create a story

This is a generative topic because it expresses a general theme which can be added to over a period of time. It also can extend, refine and leaves a great deal of creativity for both teacher and student. Because the majority of my students are non- verbal learners, the assistive technology device Smart/ Talk is a great way for them to learn to connect meaning from text to talking pictures. It covers a multitude of learning targets and can be modified to adapt to each child’s individual needs. It is also fun, colorful and opens a vast opportunity which covers a wide range of performance standards both in curriculum and technology. The Smart/ Talk board is engaging and motivating! Although there could be a multitude of enduring understandings, probably the most encompassing would be: Students will gain comprehension of literature through modified forms of text utilizing assistive technology.
Creating Essential Questions
1. How can we use assistive technology voice, pictures and symbols to tell a story?
Unit Goals
Please see Curriculum Unit Sheet Part 1
Learning Targets
Learning Targets 1: Knowledge and comprehension.
Students will name and identify the labeled pictures presented on the Smart Talk AT device. The students will recognize that print and pictures symbolizes the same information.
Learning Targets 2: Performance Skills
The student performs basic hardware operating functions by responding through the AT device, specific questions asked regarding the story.

Learning Targets 3: Products
Students gain meaning from picture story presented by creating their own story book.
Learning Targets 4: Dispositions
The student participates in communicating/corresponding ideas and information with others using telecommunication resources in a learning environment.
Technology Curriculum Plan

This curriculum unit is planned and designed to implement the use of an assistive technology device. Assistive technology is a broad term used to describe any specialist computer hardware, software or other peripheral pieces of technology available to people with disabilities. An ACC device, or Augmentative Alternative Communication device, is defined as any assistive technology device that aids a person in communication. This includes the transmission of speech and picture communication.
In understanding how this device will teach students, it is imperative to know the premise behind
speech and picture communication. Making choices, requests, getting attention and rejecting things not wanted, are the first four basic elemental tools a child needs to learn to facilitate communication. These four functions give children control over their lives. Using ACC devices increase independence and decrease incidence of behavioral issues. After students learn the basic operating skills and principals, they can then be taught higher order skills as well as other advanced communication experiences. As mentioned earlier, communication devices have a high success rate in students with behavioral issues who have communication deficits. This success is mostly due to the fact that once communication is established, there appears to be less frustration on the part of the communicator.
An amazing thing to watch is a child with communication deficits coming to understand the rewards of successful communication! These rewards are immediate and begin to flow naturally. It allows children immediate power over his or her life which, in turn, reinforces the value and the motivation of continued learning.
For this learning unit, the students will learn the use and operation of a Smart/ Speak. They will gain knowledge about its valuable use, how to employ its operation and maintenance, and also come to experience the value and impact within literacy and comprehension. The students will also learn about way to take good care of the devise. Smart/ Speak devises are incredibly durable and can be placed in a reading center for add ional exposure to its use.
Pictured below, this device allows multiple uses for student’s communication deficits and intellectual disabilities. They come in a variety of levels beginning with just three large cells and continuing up to thirty-two cells.

The literacy unit, Brown Bear, What Do You See? incorporates a multitude of learning experiences across the curriculum. Reading and comprehension, writing, beginning sounds, animal sounds, and animal identification are just a few examples.
One of the better websites dedicated to teacher literacy units is . The site provides day by day activity lesson plans to teach learning concepts that go beyond just language arts and provides a plethora of activities that enhance and extend the story. For instance, one of the culminating activities used is to create a Brown Bear story necklace. By utilizing AT computer software Boardmaker, students are able to use the exact picture symbols from the Smart/ Speak board to make their necklace.
Another exciting web site,, explores and shares what other teachers have done to extend and refine this rich literacy unit. There are templates for copy, pictures of adapted books, beginning sounds printables, art projects, and even the directions to making a class book! This site has virtually everything a teacher would need to cover all the important concepts taught for this unit. Equally useful is the teacher site,
This site is more of a blackboard for teachers to use and share the different ideas they have used with the Brown Bear book. It is great to see all the exciting ideas and sharing ideas with other teachers.
The net has hundreds of sites created by teachers especially for the Brown Bear story and it also offers many sites which can be used by students to reinforce the activities and learning stands introduced by teachers from the story book. One such site is Students may use this site to look up virtually any animal on the planet. They can explore their habitats and take quizzes or produce flash cards for the unit. A personal favorite is This free site distributes thousands of sounds
created by almost anything. The animal sounds are a wonderful way to reinforce the animals in the story. This site does, however, require the user to first complete a short survey before allowing them to log in. An all-time favored site by most elementary teachers is which takes reading and comprehension into another level. Not only is it fun, it has many different holiday themes and stories that can easily be tied into almost any primary literacy unit. It is a user friendly site and designed to produce higher order thinking as the students move along.
In conclusion, assistive technology devices can be powerful learning tools for all types of learners. They allow success for those who cannot facilitate communication and allow an open window for those who eventually will become independent communicators.

Questions Assignment 3.1 Six Questions


Name the 8 animal characters in the story," Brown Bear, What Do You See?"

Identify the 8 animal characters and their habitats.

Portray an animal from the story and practice that character through imitation.

Differentiate animals in the story that live in or near water vs. those who live on land.

Incorporate the animal character you have chosen into a sequenced play.
Why did you choose that particular animal to portray?
Did you like the story? What was your favorite part?
Curriculum Unit
Nancy Story
Grade Level: MOID Elem. K
Subject Area(s): Assistive Technology CCSD
State: GA
URL: Georgia Performance Standards

Generative Topic Title: Rolling Down the Technology Highway

Essential Questions
that Frame this Curriculum Unit

1. How can we use assistive technology voice, pictures and symbols to tell a story?

Unit Understanding Goal 1
Learning Targets 1: Knowledge and comprehension.
The student performs basic hardware operating functions by responding through the AT device, specific questions asked regarding the story.

Associated Curriculum Standard (Reference)
T:1 Basic Skills Reading/writing/comprehension
Unit Understanding Goal 2
Learning Targets 2: Performance Skills
The student participates in communicating/corresponding ideas and information with others using telecommunication resources in a learning environment.

Associated Curriculum Standard (Reference)
T:3 Reading and comprehension
Unit Understanding Goal 3
2. Learning Targets 3: Product
Students will name and identify the labeled pictures presented on the Smart Talk AT device. The students will recognize that print and pictures symbolizes the same information.

Associated Curriculum Standard (Reference)
Unit Understanding Goal 4
Learning Targets 4: Disposition - Social Skills
Work cooperatively and collaboratively with peers, and others when using technology in the classroom by performing a play to reinact the story utilizing the Smart/ Talk.
Social Skills
Associated Curriculum Standard (Reference)
Unit Understanding Goal 5
Learning Targets: Disposition- Communication
The student’s will engage in student-teacher/ teacher – student interactions

Associated Curriculum Standard (Reference)

Technology Goals
For Use of Computers & Other Technologies
(From state or ISTE Standards)
Goal 1.Use input devices (e.g., mouse, keyboard, remote control) and output devices (e.g., monitor, printer) to successfully operate computers, VCRs, audiotapes, and other technologies. (1) ISTE #
Goal 2.Use developmentally appropriate multimedia resources (e.g., interactive books, educational software, elementary multimedia encyclopedias) to support learning. (1) ISTE # 1
Gaol 3 Practice responsible use of technology systems and software. (2) ISTE #1
Gaol 4 Create developmentally appropriate multimedia products with support from teachers, family members, or student partners. (3) ISTE #4
Unit Activities and Performances
Types of Performances
Activities Required
Goals Addressed by this Activity
Nature of Technology Use
Assessment Strategies
Introductory Performances
Introduce,E.Q. and Smart/ talk, its operation is modeled, the students take turns exploring how Smart-Talk works for themselves.
TG 1,2,3
Assistive technology
Smart/ talk device used for non-verbal learners and special needs students.
Students will model the correct and incorrect ways to handle the smart-talk device
TG 1,2,3
Assistive technology
Smart/ talk device used for non-verbal learners and special needs students.
Using sound track # 2 of Smart/ talk, the students will each try to record the animal sounds represented by an animal in the story.
TG 1,2,31
Recording sounds for communication
As the story is Introduced the students take turns responding to the story questions by touching correct pictures prompts.

TG 1,2,3
Assistive technology
Smart/ talk device used for non-verbal learners and special needs students.

Using Imported pictures from Google, the students will print and show and tell the habitats where each animal live.

TG 1,2,3
Viewing information
From the internet and printing it.
Habitat guessing game in collaborative pairs

Guided Inquiry Performances
Students as a group will go to the web sites:
and to explore animal sounds and their habitats
Exposure to a variety of technology for extension/ computer technology
Students will create their own necklaces showing the characters in the story in sequence using boardmaker software.
TG 1,2,3
Software programs/
Culminating Performances /
Final Projects
Students will show hands on that they can hold, turn on /off, and control volume and record voice over.
Students will also state one thing reviewed that would not be its proper use or care.

Students will be given a character assignment from the story and act out that character using Smart/ talk for their animal sounds.

Students will perform a skit for their 4th grade reading buddies in which they become the character of the story and pass along the smart/ talk to the next character in the skit.

All Tech Goals # 1,2,3
Smart/ talk

Assessment 1

Check List ____INTRODUCTORY ASSESSMENT____________________
Teacher: Nancy Story

Student’s Name
Characterize animals/sounds /sequence/
AT device and recording
Responds to questions regarding story/Smart/talk

Assessment 2


Teacher: Nancy Story


STUDENTS NAME:________________

Goals and Objectives:

1. The students gains knowledge through the use of computers and internet sites

2. The students manipulate and navigate correctly through the websites.

3. The students show interest in the content and participate appropriately with peers.

Assessment 3

Rubric Assessment for Final Project

Teacher: Nancy Story

Student name:

Culminating Assessment
Characterizes animal and portrays correct animal and sound/ stays in habitats assigned
Approximates characterization and sounds/stays in habitat assigned
Unable to perform character/sounds stay in assigned habitat
Unable to perform character/ sounds or stay in habitat
Technology Assessment
Accurately understands and manipulates AT device recording sounds appropriately.
Manipulates AT device/unable to operate without assistance. records with assistance/
Unable to manipulate AT device but makes attempts
Unable to Successfully manipulate/control AT device or Unwilling to participate with group
Peer interaction/Following Direction
Appropriately engages with peers and outside visitors within classroom and attempts to communicate
Stays with the group/ attempts to communication
stays with group throughout assignment
Unable to focus/engage with peers or others successfully
Assessment 4
Culminating performances/Final Project 3.4

Culminating Assessment
Characterizes animal and locates correct animal and sound with Smart/Talk response.
Characterizes animal and attempts to locate sounds on Smart /Talk
Locates picture and sound from Smart/talk but is enable to maintain character chosen in story
Unable to perform character/ operate basic functions of Smart/Talk
Guided Performances with peers
Uses multimedia resources to support learning by correct manipulation of computer/navigation and websites assigned.
Successfully moves through each web site assigned but has trouble with manipulation of general computer
Unable to navigate or manipulate computer successfully but make attempts and appropriately stays with group and tracks the navigation of others.
Unable to Successfully manipulate/control or navigate computer or websites. Unwilling to participate with group
Introductory performances
Listens to the story -understands/demonstrates how to use Smart/Talk- appropriately responding to story by touching correct cells of Smart/Talk -records animal sounds.
Unable to manipulate hardware but successfully answers questions to story using device. Records animal sounds correctly.
Unable to use hardware but listens/tricks and appropriately makes an attempt.
Unable to focus on listening to the story/demonstration of hardware/manipulate device or record animal sounds.

Sunday, September 23, 2007


Final Portaportal web book marker site complete:
Go to :
login: snj8468
password: johnson3

I enjoyed sharing bookmarks with my teammates and adding cool new stuff I didn't know about. Creating this site also gave me a great feeling of organization. It allowed me to categorize all my areas of interest and look at the areas that needed more information.
So far, portaportal has been a great new technology tool for me as well as my co-workers.

Journey into Web Making

Journey into Web Design

Lesley University

ECOMP 7007

September 4, 2007

Nancy Story

As a technology novice, I have limited practice with web creations and designs. My journey has been an interesting experience with numerous bumps along the way. I only realized how difficult it was when I found myself half way through it!
As I began to unshelter this web design journey, I wanted to create a site that would be useful to special needs children, their parents and advocates. I wanted the site to portray a since of compassion and encompass information that would normally be found on several sites. I chose information which was most current. I added operational poems and photos of my own students. The parents of these students were very excited! I spent a lot of time researching many special needs web sites, many of which were international. I noticed that Sweden and Germany in particular had many creative sites which provided viewers with an abundance of free information and downloadable software.
Unlike American sites, it appears that Europe provides more “free stuff” in the special needs area. After viewing these sites, I was motivated and convinced that if I dug deep enough, I too could find “free stuff” available to the special needs population in our country. After probing further, I began to find a plethora of information available for parents and educators.
After many days of downloading various information and tools, I began the arduous journey into web design. Originally, I wanted to use Dream weaver but found it to be very technical and not very easy to navigate. I chose Weebly because it seemed so much simpler and user friendly. Weebly appears fairly simple but lacks more design capabilities than dreamwaever. Weebly’s font button is tricky so while editing, it is difficult to tell what size the font is actually going to be! This stumbling block created many hours of frustration and unnecessary guess work. Additionally, there lacked variety when it involved the web design layout. There were very few options to choose from so the choices only allowed certain one text to picture ratio, one title to picture or only a stand alone picture. There was no creative way to copy and paste inside the picture box space or add picture credits. As a result, the pictures are caption less and have big spaces around them. It was annoying not to be able to have choices to add text to areas of the photos. Moreover, the pictures upload into an oversized frame that will not seem to format into the frame!
More wearisome still, the cutting, pasting and cookie problems. Cookies on, cookie off, no cookies, too many cookies! Finally, I could not get the feed burner nor the built in RSS feed to make feeds for my site. One of the newest problems encountered consist of the inability to get fonts to size up consistently. Also, font colors are very difficult to match up when adding new materials to the page. Often, I would change, cut or paste one page to a different page to reformat the sequence and this information would delete itself.
As of yesterday, September 18, 2007, the last two pages of the site will not publish at all yet when I do an edit check, they look just fine! I have emailed Weebly three times and they are “working on it”. So far, it has been an exhausting journey with a lot of bumps along the way. Concerned for others who might be in the same predicament, I began to surf the net in search of reviews and feedback. It was interesting to see that there were many users having similar problems but over all, thought the site was awesome. Others claimed that no one can compare to Google page creator and Weebly itself also revealed a news release in which they acknowledged the problems, appreciated the advice and announced that they were in the works of “tweaking” the bugs out.
Aside from all the tribulations while creating this web site, it was an incredibly satisfying and fun undertaking. I have gained a great deal of satisfaction in providing an all encompassing, specialized site that provides a wide spectrum of tools and information which will help and assist this area of the population.

Thursday, September 20, 2007


Here is the web address to my newly designed site!
It was a blast to create but with a lot of headaches!!

If this doesn't work use my login and pass:
Login: snj18468
Password: johnson3

Monday, September 3, 2007


Well, I must say that I have had a blast with this class! My fellow cohorters are smart and funny. They taught me so much about bringing technology into my classroom. They helped me with assignments that I would have never understood on my own. I guess this concept of teacher collaboration really works!! I have learned that "jumping in"is the best way to explore and come to understand the internet and all it's intricacies. I had no idea there was so much
to know. One of the most interesting and fun activities we did was creating our blog. I enjoyed being able to have the feedom to be creative and encorporate things that interest me. Although it's still under construction, I am having a great time creating my web site. Ecomp7007 has been a great "hands on" experience. It's so nice to be able to learn and have fun at the same time!

Wednesday, August 29, 2007

Assistive Technology at Towson University by Tricia Ryan, Ph.D.

The author, Tricia Ryan, prepares a resourceful and “hands on” paper that identifies very specific assistive technology devices which are available for the special needs population. These AT devices are also readily available at Towson University and are utilized by their students with special needs. Ryan provides visuals in her paper which are valuable examples of the technology available to facilitate instruction for the diverse population of learners with disabilities.
The first example used is an adapted children’s book created by a graduate student that illustrates the creative abilities available to adapt narrative elements of books. By using board maker technology software programs, educators can alter books, create mini books or mini photo albums which aid non-verbal and autistic students who would otherwise not comprehend the elements of a narrative book. Board maker software also provides teachers with the ability to adapt visual schedules and directions.
Dr. Ryan also discusses the variety of alternative keyboards available for the special needs population. These keyboards can be easily installed on any computer and come with a variety of overlays specifically designed for students with visual and physical limitations. Another efficient AT devise which is commonly used in middle and high schools, is the Alpha Smart Keyboard. This tool is fairly small, portable and can be used note taking with has easy retrieval of information.
Another efficient AT devise which is commonly used in middle and high schools, is the Alpha Smart Keyboard. This tool is fairly small, portable and can be used note taking with has easy retrieval of information.
One of the most valuable devices available through assistive technology is the Touch Screen Window. With this devise, students can actually touch the computer screen and manipulate moving objects, pull down screens and draw graphics. Also available are screen magnifiers for the visually impaired. Figure four below shows a touch screen that is actually placed over the actual computer screen. Today, most Touch Screen software is built directly into the computer so the student actually touches the computer screen itself.
Today, there are hundreds of assistive technology devices available to augment, adapt and modify our current and on going technology for the classroom. This technology allows teachers to plan instructional lessons and activates using AT support to blend technology content into course content. The use of AT allows multiple opportunities for all students to fully engage in the learning process. AT is now more than ever, essential to the special needs population providing specific accommodations to meet individual learning needs and to empower this diverse group of unique learners.


Ryan, T. ( 2003, December ). Assistive Technology at Towson University. Retrieved August 29, 2007, from (